B.A. Stanford University, 1982, Economics.
Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1987, Economics.


  • John G. Searle Professor of Economics and Management, Yale School of Management, 2007 to present.

  • Director, Yale Center for Business and the Environment, 2009 to 2014.

  • Faculty Fellow, Daniel Rose Yale-Technion Counterterror Research Initiative, 2008 to 2011.

  • Professor, Yale School of Management, 1995 to 2007.

  • Faculty Fellow, Center for Research on Inequalities & the Life Course,

  • Department of Sociology, Yale University, 2005 to 2012.

  • Yale University Interdisciplinary Reading & Discussion Group on Aesthetics, Ethics, & Economics, 2005 to 2007.

  • Professor By Courtesy, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 2000 to present.

  • Affiliated Professor, Yale Department of Economics, 2009 to present.

  • Associate Professor, Yale School of Management, 1992 to 1995.

  • Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research, Economics of Aging Program, 1991-1992.

  • Associate Professor, Stanford Graduate School of Business, 1990-1992.

  • Assistant Professor, Stanford Graduate School of Business, 1987-1990.

  • Visiting Scholar, Yale University, 1990-1991.

  • Visiting Scholar, Columbia University Graduate School of Business, Summer 1989.


  • Frank and Shorenstein Funds Research Award, Yale School of Management, 1997-98.

  • John M. Olin Faculty Fellow in the Social Sciences for 1993-94.

  • Compagnia di San Paolo Award for the best paper presented at the 49th Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance, Berlin, 1993.

  • Fletcher Jones Faculty Scholar for 1990-91.

  • National Science Foundation Fellowship for Graduate Studies, 1984-87.

  • Phi Beta Kappa, 1981 (Junior year).

  • Omicron Delta Epsilon (Charter Member).

  • Winner, Westinghouse Science Talent Search, 1978.


  • Advisory Board, Institute for Creative Management and Innovation, Kinki University; and Editorial Board, Kindai Management Review, 2011 to present.

  • Member, National Bureau of Economic Research group on Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship, 2013 to present.

  • National Bureau of Economic Research Research Associate, 1987-2003, Health Care Program.

  • Member, National Bureau of Economic Research Program on the Economics of National Security, 2004-2009.

  • American Economic Association.

  • Econometric Society.





  • "Guiding Creative Structures: A Model," in progress.

  • "Creativity Journeys," book manuscript, in progress.


  • The Nature of Creative Development.  Stanford University Press, 2006.  572 pages.  Paperback edition 2008.  ebook edition 2012.


  • “The number of undocumented immigrants in the United States: Estimates based on demographic modeling using data from 1990 to 2016” (joint with Mohammad Fazel-Zarandi and Edward Kaplan), PLoS ONE, 13(9): e0201193. . Published September 21, 2018.

  • "Diversity, Knowledge Clusters, and Job Placement: Graduate Economics Teaching of Core Microeconomics" (joint with Arthur Campbell, Soonwook Hong, Sharon Qian, and Trevor Williams), Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 146-66, 2017.

  • "The Creative Development of Fields: Learning, Creativity, Paths, Implications," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Vol. 8, pp. 23-62, 2017 (first published online 2015).

  • "Creative Development: Patterns of Learning," IMCIC Conference Proceedings, March 2015, pp. 32-7.

  • "Unleashing Creative Development," Kindai Management Review Inaugural issue, Feb. 2013, pp. 132-42.

  • "Intel Queues," (joint with Ed Kaplan), Military Operations Research, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2012, pp. 17-30.

  • "Counterterror Intelligence Operations and Terror Attacks," (joint with Ed Kaplan), Public Choice, Vol. 149, Numbers 3-4, Dec. 2011, pp. 281-95.

  • "Optimal Learning Patterns for Creativity Generation in a Field," American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 101, No. 3, May 2011, pp.227-32.

  • "Capitalism and the Jews: Essays and Puzzles," book review of Capitalism and the Jews by Jerry Muller, Research in the History of Economic Thought & Methodology, Vol. 29, Part I, 2011, pp. 185-90.

  • "Analysis of a Strategic Terror Organization," (joint with Ed Kaplan), Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 54, No. 2, April 2010, pp. 281-302.

  • "Econometric Models for Multi-Stage Audit Processes: An Application to the IRS National Research Program," (joint with Brian Erard). In Developing Alternative Frameworks for Explaining Tax Compliance, edited by James Alm, Jorge Martinez-Vazquez and Benno Torgler, Routledge 2010, pp. 113-37.

  • "Creativity & The Economic System." Entry for the Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent, edited by Barbara Kerr, SAGE Publications, 2009, pp. 203-6.

  • "The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce," Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 45, No. 2, June 2007, pp. 466-79.

  • "The Distinctiveness of Individuals: Using Knowledge Structures to Represent Research Focuses; The Field of Stem Cell Research," Proceedings of the 9th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, Advances in Intelligent Systems Research, Atlantis Press, online, October 2006.

  • "Public Goods in Trade: On the Formation of Markets and Jurisdictions" (with Alessandra Casella), International Economic Review, Vol. 43, No. 2, May 2002, pp. 437-62.

  • "Elderly Asset Management and Health" (with Chih-Chin Ho) (with commentary by Jonathan Skinner), in Rethinking Estate and Gift Taxation, edited by William G. Gale, James R. Hines, and Joel Slemrod, Brookings Institution Press, 2001, pp. 457-503.

  • "Approaches for Estimating Noncompliance: Examples from Federal Taxation in the United States," The Economic Journal, Vol. 109, No. 456, June 1999, pp. 360-9.

  • "Predicting Estate Tax Filings and Taxable Gifts" (with Chih-Chin Ho), IRS Research Bulletin, 1999, pp. 39-45.

  • "Tax Compliance" (with James Andreoni and Brian Erard), Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 36, No. 2, June 1998, pp. 818-60. Reprinted in Taxation: Critical Perspectives on the World Economy, edited by Simon James, Routledge, 2002, Volume 3, Chapter 41, pp. 3-55. Reprinted in The Economics of the Hidden Economy, edited by Friedrich Schneider, Edward Elgar Publishing.

  • "Tax Compliance," entry in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, edited by Peter Newman, MacMillan References Limited (in U.S. Stockton Press), 1998, Volume 3, pp. 574-9.

  • "The Relationship Between State and Federal Tax Audits" (with James Alm and Brian Erard), in Empirical Foundations of Household Taxation, edited by Martin Feldstein and James Poterba, University of Chicago Press (published for the NBER), 1996, pp. 275-317.

  • "Elderly Health, Housing, and Mobility," in Advances in the Economics of Aging, edited by David Wise, University of Chicago Press (published for the NBER), 1996, pp. 275-317.

  • "Asymmetric Information, Accounting Manipulations, and Partnerships," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 26, 1995, pp. 49-73.

  • "Honesty and Evasion in the Tax Compliance Game" (with Brian Erard), RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 1-19.

  • "The Role of Moral Sentiments and Audit Perceptions in Tax Compliance" (with Brian Erard), Public Finance, Vol. 49, Supplement, 1994, pp. 70-89.

  • "Comment on Cutler and Sheiner and Dick, Garber and MaCurdy," in Studies in the Economics of Aging, edited by David Wise, University of Chicago Press (published for the NBER), 1994, pp. 434-42.

  • "The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Health: A Review of the Literature," The Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 2, 1993, pp. 279-322.

  • "Public Good Provision and Political Stability in Europe," The American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 82, No. 2, May 1992, pp. 323-9.

  • "A Note on Bargaining and Inflation" (with Alessandra Casella), Economics Letters, Vol. 38, 1992, pp. 393-8.

  • "Comment on Beron, Tauchen, and Witte," in Why People Pay Taxes? Tax Compliance and Enforcement, edited by Joel Slemrod, University of Michigan Press, 1992, pp. 90-4.

  • "The Econometric Implications of Incentive Compatible Regulation" (with Frank Wolak), in Advances in Econometrics, Vol. 9, edited by George Rhodes, JAI Press, 1991, pp. 159-204.

  • "An Econometric Analysis of Income Tax Evasion and Its Detection," RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1991, pp. 14-35. There is a correction to this paper, equations (4) and (5) involving a missing Jacobian. It is appended to the version of the paper on this website under Publications, Tax Compliance.

  • "Detection Controlled Estimation," Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 33, No. 1, April 1990, pp. 233-76.

  • "The Dynamics of Housing Demand By The Elderly: User Cost Effects" (with Chunrong Ai, Daniel McFadden and Henry Pollakowski), in Issues in the Economics of Aging, edited by David Wise, University of Chicago Press (published for the NBER), 1990, pp. 33-82.

  • "Economic Exchange During Hyperinflation" (with Alessandra Casella), Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, No. 1, February 1990, pp. 1-27.

  • "Reassessing the Tax Gap: New Estimates of Filer Income Tax Evasion and Its Detection," Tax Notes, Vol. 45, No. 8, November 1989, pp. 1003-9.

  • "Management of a Common Currency" (with Alessandra Casella), in A European Central Bank? edited by Alberto Giovannini and Marcello DeCecco, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 131-61.

  • "The Safety Regulation of U.S. Nuclear Power Plants: Violations, Inspections, and Abnormal Occurrences," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 97, No. 1, February 1989, pp. 115-54.

  • "Employee Opportunism and Redundancy in Firms" (with Jeremy Stein), Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 10, No. 3, December 1988, pp. 401-14.

  • "The Dynamics of Housing Demand By The Elderly: Wealth, Cash Flow, and Demographic Effects" (with Daniel McFadden), in The Economics of Aging, edited by David Wise, University of Chicago Press (published for the NBER), 1988, pp. 55-86.

  • "Die Wirksamkeit der jungsten Antikartelltatbigkeit der US - Regierung im Bereich der Baundustie" (with Michael Block and Frederick Nold), Internationale Forschungsergebnisse auf dem Gebiet der Wirtschaftskriminalitat, Centaurus Verlagsgesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung, Pfaffenweiler, 1987, pp. 28-52.

  • "Controlling Collusion in the Construction Industry: Some Lessons from Recent U.S. Experience" (with Michael Block), Swiss Review of International Competition Law, No. 28, October 1986, pp. 41-55.

  • "The Spillover Effect of Antitrust Enforcement" (with Michael Block), The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 68, No. 1, February 1986, pp. 122-31.

  • "Asymmetric Information and Collusive Behavior in Auction Markets" (with Michael Block and Frederick Nold), The American Economic Review, Vol. 75, No. 3, June 1985, pp. 441-60.


  • “How many undocumented immigrants there really are, and why the number matters” (joint with Mohammad Fazel-Zarandi and Edward Kaplan), New York Daily News, October 1, 2018, online.

  • "A Guide to Creative Development," Tory Burch Foundation Website article, 2015.

  • "Creative Development," ChildArt Magazine, published by the International Child Art Foundation, April 2012.  Reprinted Winter 2014.

  • "Unleashing Creative Development," essay for the Cato Unbound essay series, October 2010.  A follow-up essay which the editor titled "Bringing Values In" was also published.

  • "Die Natur der Kreativitat," Innovations Manager, published by F.A.Z. Institut, Germany.  Issue 4, December 2008.

  • Yale University Art Gallery website, editorial for What is Art? Questions and Controversies Section, in response to the question, "Would art sink without money?"  Posted October 2004 - present.


  • "Elderly Asset Management" (with Ching-Yang Lin), 2006. Available on SSRN.

  • "An Economic Analysis of Life Care" (with Edward Keating), 1992. Available on SSRN.

  • "Econometric Models of Compliance and Enforcement: Reporting Behavior and Audit Selection Decisions" (with Brian Erard), 1996.

  • "An Econometric Model of the Tax Compliance Game" (with Brian Erard), 1995.

  • "A Microeconometric Analysis of Income Tax Evasion" (with Craig Alexander), 1987.


  • "Colombia at a Crossroads," 2013. Prepared by Veronica Calle and Alexandra van Nievelt under my guidance.

  • "Water, Land, and Development in Southern Africa: Namibia," revised 2010, by Andrea Nagy Smith. Originally case prepared by Saleem Ali and Victoria Guisinger under my guidance, 1996.

  • "Novelis," 2008. Prepared by Allison Mitkowski with the assistance of Paola Allais, under my guidance.

  • "Mercy Corps: Sustainable Innovation Through Partnerships," 2007. Prepared by Andrea Nagy under my guidance.

  • "Veterans Health Administration," 2007. Prepared by Allison Mitkowski under my guidance.

  • "New Projects at World Epoch Publishing: A Role-Play Simulation," 2007. Prepared by Jean Rosenthal under my guidance.

  • "Propulsion" simulation case, 2002.

  • "Intrigue, A, B, C and D," 2001.

  • "NP Inc. A Biotech Start-Up," 2000.

  • "Should the Water Authorities of England and Wales Be Privatized?" 1990. Prepared by Becky Epstein under my guidance.

  • "The 1990 Clean Air Act and the Use of Market-Based Systems to Control Pollution: Contrasting Acid Rain and Mobile Source Provisions," 1992.

  • "Yosemite National Park, A, B, C and D," 1991. Prepared by Peter Cooley under my guidance.

  • "Screening for Breast Cancer: Decision Analysis and Organizational Issues" (with Wendell Gilland), 1989.